Johann Christian Friedrich Hæffner [Haeffner] (1759−1833)

Johann Christian Friedrich Hæffner (then spelled Häfner) was born on 2 March 1759 in the German village of Oberschönau in Thüringen, and died 28 May 1833 in Uppsala. He came to Sweden in 1781 and attained leading musical positions in Stockholm, particularly that of chief conductor of the Royal Court Orchestra. In 1808, after the closure of the Opera, he was made director musices at Uppsala University and later, as well, the city’s cathedral organist. While his folk song arrangements and chorale books made an important impact on music in Sweden, he is also known overseas as a composer of operas. He was elected into the Royal Swedish Academy of Music in 1788.

Life

1759−80: Childhood, studies and years on the road

Nearly everything that is known about Johann Christian Friedrich Hæffner’s early years comes from his own account, which can hardly be considered modest or unopinionated. His father was a teacher in the village of Oberschönau in Thüringen as well as a music aficionado who played piano and violin. Luther and J.S. Bach were his early idols, and his joy at easily being able to play Luther’s chorale ‘Ein Feste Burg ist unser Gott’ he recalled as being so great that music hardly ever pleased him again. As a 10-year old, Hæffner had already copied out ‘all’ of Bach’s keyboard music with the parish priest in Klein-Schmalkalden. He also played organ in the liturgical music that was performed on Sundays by schoolboys, artisans and farmers under the direction of the schoolmaster.

It was at the early age of 10 that Hæffner also became a pupil of organist Johann Gottfried Vierling in Schmalkalden, whose cantatas were often performed in the churches and followed in the J.S. Bach, J.P. Kirnberger and C.P.E. Bach tradition. Attending an Easter Day service in Gotha Church in 1770, Hæffner heard a cantata by Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel conducted by his successor Georg Benda. It included the a cappella chorale ‘Christ lag in Todesbanden’, indelibly imprinting in his mind an ideal of four-part a cappella song and the church modes.

There then followed a time of wandering, when Hæffner passed through Schweinfurt, Bamberg, Nürnberg and Erfurt. In Bamberg he attended his first ever Catholic mass on a saint’s day, with all its splendour and music − a mass for orchestra and choir ‘in the most dignified liturgical style’ that ‘could convert a sensitive artist to Catholicism’. Other Catholic churches, however, left Hæffner with very different impressions and  he summed up his feelings by saying that the Catholic Mass could be ‘both sublime and base’. He earned a living during this time by writing short cantatas for ‘the circle of cantors and colleges’, which possibly included the court orchestra in Meiningen (e.g. his first passion oratorio at the age of 17).

During these years on the road, it is possible that Hæffner also studied at Leipzig University (1776−78), attended Johann Adam Hiller’s singing school, and worked as a proofreader at Breitkopf. He might also have been director of music for various theatres (in Hamburg, for example) before becoming an organist in Schweinsberg in 1780. It was at this time while visiting Moravian churches that he heard some Gregorian melodies sung syllabically, even though Luther had let them remain melismatic. Hæffner thought that Luther would approve of this development, but conceded that the chorale in general was on the wane in its evolution into ballad.

1781−1808: Organist and hovkapellmästare in Stockholm

Hæffner arrived in Sweden on 6 June 1781 to take up the post of organist for Stockholm’s German parish. Midsummer Day a few weeks later saw the inauguration of the church’s new organ, an event in which Hæffner very probably participated, and at which, in the presence of King Gustav III, chief orator pastor Christoph Wilhelm Lüdeke lamented the neglect into which church music had fallen in Sweden.

It was at around this time that all European eyes were on Gustav III’s grand opera project. A decision to build a new opera house had been taken in 1775, and in the closing years of the 1780s, Stockholm was home to four German musicians, whose reputations were left to posterity: Kraus, Naumann, Vogler and Hæffner.

It seems that Joseph Martin Kraus, who was a few years Hæffner’s senior and the newly appointed hovkapellmästare (chief conductor of the Hovkapellet − the Royal Court Orchestra), was a particularly close friend of the composer’s. The two men presumably collaborated practically, perhaps even as early as 1782 when Kraus might have conducted the (then illegal) Swedish premiere of C.H. Graun’s passion oratorio Tod Jesu in the German Church in Stockholm. Hæffner himself conducted the first performances in the city of Haydn’s Creation (1801), Mozart’s requiem (1805) and Handel’s Messiah (1805). His organ repertoire was, of course, dominated by Bach.

Hæffner’s relationship with Johann Gottlieb Naumann, one of Europe’s leading music figures of the time, seems, however, to have been more intimidatingly respectful. When they heard Sami ‘yoiking’ in the early 1780s in Stockholm, Naumann admitted to being unsure about what to think as a professional musician; Hæffner himself seems to have been struck dumb, perhaps because he had been involved in the staging of Naumann’s opera Cora och Alonzo when the new opera house opened in the spring of 1782 as well, possibly, as in his ‘national opera’ Gustaf Vasa in 1786. Much later, however, Hæffner revealed that he had thought that ‘half study removes one from nature, while deep study of art brings one closer to nature’. This suggests a divergence of art appreciation, despite the fact that Hæffner’s ideal has often been described as neoclassical. It seems, therefore, that even enlightenment Sweden had a tendency towards the pre-romantic that did not start to blossom until after 1809.

After only a few months in Sweden, Hæffner had managed to secure employment at the Kungliga Teatern (the Royal Opera) as violist and singing teacher. In the following year, he was also recruited by the Stenborg teater, which mainly staged comic operas. Here he wrote Den svartsjuke − sin egen rival. To celebrate the Queen’s name day at Drottningholm Palace on 22 July 1787, he received a commission to write the opera Electra, which was premiered three months later at the Kungliga Teatern. It was very likely this that led to his election into the Kungliga Musikaliska akademien (the Royal Swedish Academy of Music) in January 1788. Musical education was also one of its concerns.

Gustav III was attracted by liturgical reforms in other countries and critical of the reductionism of the enlightenment that had led to the ‘decline of religion’. ‘Solemnity’ was a concept much favoured by the monarch for the services held in the Royal Court Parish, and in 1789 he raised the issue of a Swedish liturgical reform. The coming second centenary of the Uppsala Synod of 1593 gave him reason to tackle the matter and a new commemorative Bible translation, hymnal and missal were planned; the King’s ideas spread, so that by the time of the regicide in 1792, liturgical singing and music were also feeling their impact.

As Kraus’s stand-in as first hovkapellmästare during his final years of life, it fell to Hæffner to lead the Hovkapellet for the jubilee celebrations. Fifteen years later he described the preparations as being full of such ‘haste’ that he had, at the risk of his health, ‘spent many days and nights in a row without sleep’. This also led to his dismissal from the post of organist in Stockholm’s German Church, which considered him unable to play the instrument in a manner befitting his station. As the stand-in conductor of the Hovkapellet he had, however, earned respect and the contract was renewed just a few days later. The appointed (Abbé) Georg Joseph Vogler instead devoted himself to concert tours.

In 1799, Hæffner teamed up with Olof Åhlström to publish music for the mass, himself writing the four-part sections and Åhlström the priest’s chants. He later opposed a reprint, however, on the grounds that the edition was intended for the Royal Chapel and was also erroneous. So in 1817 he published the music instead with certain revisions suggested by Samuel Ödmann. At the same time, the 1799 edition circulated widely in Sweden and Finland and in 1818 was adapted by Åhlström − without Hæffner’s consent − to the 1811 missal.

Hæffner also worked intermittently on a new chorale book for four-part choir and organ. Back in March 1800 he had submitted to the Kungliga Musikaliska akademien a manuscript of all the melodies used, which although recommended never made it to the presses. It was apparently not until the Opera’s new director wanted rid of Hæffner that he resumed his efforts, and once again the approved chorale book found favour with the Kungliga Musikaliska akademien, which lauded its ‘very well chosen, simple and natural’ harmonies. This was no meagre praise, and, moreover, was penned by his rival Olof Åhlström. The academy wrote to the consistories recommending they purchase Hæffner’s chorale book, thus assuring its wide circulation.

1808−33: Director musices and cathedral organist in Uppsala

While the choral book was making its way to the nation’s various dioceses, Hæffner moved to Uppsala to serve as the university’s director musices. His intention here was not only to refine the choral singing, but also to complete a book on harmony theory that he was writing.

Despite a number of practical problems, Hæffner soon managed to lay the foundation of much of Uppsala’s subsequent vocal music scene. Taking lyrics by Samuel Ödmann, the university’s newly appointed inspector musices, he composed Försonaren på Golgatha, the first Swedish oratorio for choir and (small) orchestra, which was premiered on 19 March 1809, the same day as Russian troops landed in Grisslehamn, on the east coast of Sweden. Just a week previously, King Gustav IV Adolf had been blamed for Russia’s surprise attack on Finland in 1808, dethroned by the government and forced into exile. For Hæffner, this meant new coronation music for Charles XIII. In 1811 he had to write funeral oration music for Axel von Fersen, the brutally murdered university chancellor who had proposed Hæffner as director musices. Later that year, he was praised for his cantata to Fersen’s successor for having ‘most splendidly elevated choral singing to unprecedented heights’ so soon after his arrival in Uppsala.

It appears Hæffner also retained some contact with Stockholm. In the autumn of 1819 he published the first of a planned series of reviews of the capital’s concert scene and of ‘original Swedish composers’, in which he bemoaned Sweden’s failure to raise any native composers of rank, citing by way of contrast the top-class performances given (partly by himself) ‘in bygone times’ by such composers as Gluck, Haydn, Mozart and Handel.

In the distancing from Stockholm and its musical scene that inevitably followed, Hæffner veered more strongly towards his new romanticism of the 1780s, and as a result of his collaborations with Ödmann and of the founding of the Götiska förbundet (the Geatish Society) in 1811, developed a growing interest in the church modes. In the 1820s he also returned to the role of church musician as Uppsala’s cathedral organist. He soon adapted his earlier chorale book into a chorale book for J. O. Wallin’s new hymnal from 1819, following it a decade or so later with another chorale book for the German parish in Stockholm to which he had belonged forty years previously.

In the spirit of the Götiska förbundet Hæffner helped to collect folk songs, and wrote three books of accompaniment to Geijer and Afzeliu’s Svenska folk-visor från forntiden from 1814−18: according to Geijer, he dreamed of creating ‘a musical collection of our venerable folk songs as a monument to the nation’. Although this dream was never realised, Hæffner’s very last ‘soirée’ (27 November 1828) did contain ‘Swedish folk songs’.

He summarised his knowledge of singing techniques in Anvisning till Sångens Elementer för MusikLärare vid Skolorna. But it was butterflies that he now devoted his time to, on the orders of his doctor, and the results of these endeavours can still be seen in Uppsala. He died in Uppsala on 28 May 1833.

Works and reception

Appreciation of Hæffner’s music has varied greatly, and can perhaps be traced chronologically and most simply as having passed ‘from famous to infamous, to unknown to respected’.

His juvenile opera Electra demonstrates an interesting ethical approach to a problem and ends without a hint of rejoicing and compromise. The opera was performed ten times between 1878 and 1791 before falling into obscurity owing to its lack of national Swedish dimensions, which set it apart from the rest of the contemporary repertoire. Soon all that remained was the vilification. Following Gluck’s ideal of simplicity, truth and naturalness, the recitative had been accentuated and adapted to the melodies of the Swedish language. To this end, Hæffner had taken lessons with poet Thomas Thorild. The fact that the music was to serve the content was also underpinned by a kind of leitmotif technique. The choral parts were given prominence as a commenting chorus in the classical dramatic sense. Soon enough, however, Hæffner was faulted for having, like Gluck, paid too little attention to the musical-psychological interpretation of the plot and produced a ‘rigidity and hardness’ of melody as a result. Yet the work does have its melodious arias, duets and trios; according to Leif Jonsson Hæffner might also have been influenced by French composer Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne’s Electra from 1782.

Evidently, Hæffner was highly respected by his critic and rival Vogler despite his affronted dismissal of Renaud (premièred in 1801) on hearing parts of the opera. In private, however, he conceded that ‘that fool [Hæffner] ought never to hear just how well he writes’.

Geijer also held Hæffner in high esteem as a musician after making his acquaintance in 1807. In his obituary, he described Hæffner as a ‘consummate artist’ and acknowledged his ‘vast harmonic knowledge’ that led at times to ‘new harmonic temerities, always propitious and genuine’. This deserved attention, as did his ‘generally’ solid arrangements, which were marked by an ‘auspicious simplicity and power’. He also admired Hæffner’s organ playing.

Over 100 years later, pianist Knut Brodin described his compositions as being full of ‘breadth and clarity’ and ‘always melodically original and beautiful to the ear’.

According to Folke Bohlin, Hæffner’s tillfällighetsmusik (occasional music) was more a display of craftsmanship than genuine compositional talent, yet it can be noted that many of these compositions were considered his ‘favourite pieces’. From this perspective it is also instructive to note some of Hæffner’s advice on performance technique and his means of composing. In the music for Karl XIII’s funeral in 1818, for example, he wrote beside a particular choral piece: ‘The score is not to be observed strictly. Let the emotions dictate.’ To depict the wrath of nature and thus symbolise death, he liked to compose ‘storm movements’. The funeral cantatas often begin sorrowfully before segueing into a storm movement and ending in a mood that is predominantly lyrical. Sometimes his technique is rather contrapuntal, and his recitatives are often based on triads.

Anders Dillmar © 2015
Trans. Neil Betteridge

Publications by the composer

‘Förord’, in: Choral-bok. Utgifven af Joh. Christian Fredrich Hæffner, Kongl. Hof. Kapellmästare. Stockholm: Carl Delén, 1808.
Svensk Choralbok utgifven av Joh. Christ. Fredr. Hæffner. Andra delen jemte chronologiskt och 1821 melodi-register till första delen, Upsala: Palmblad och C). [Here several registers are included as well as a preface to part I.]
Preludier till Melodierna [1−138] uti Svenska Choralboken samt Marscher. Första [and only] häftet, pp. 126−133, 1822. [This includes ‘Några upplysningar beträffande den Nya CHORALBOKEN i anledning av H:r Stielers i Allmänna Journalen (N:o 296, 297 för 1821) införda anmärkningar’.
Företal till musiken till Svenska Messan, 1817 (new edition 1840).
Anvisning till Sångens Elementer för Musik Lärare vid Skolorna, Uppsala universitetsbibliotek, Vok mus i hs 93:6.
‘Anmärkningar öfver Gamla Nordiska Sången’, Svea. Tidskrift för vetenskap och konst, 1818, book 1, pp. 78−92 [p. 100f in 2nd edition 1824; also in: Gunnar Ternhag, ‘Den nordiska skalan’, in: Ronström & Ternhag Texter om svensk folkmusik från Hæffner till Ling, 1994, p. 31ff].

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Sources

Landsarkivet Härnösand, Uppsala universitetsbibliotek, Västerås stadsbibliotek (avd. Stiftsbiblioteket), Musik- och teaterbiblioteket, Kungliga Biblioteket Stockholm, Linköpings stadsbibliotek (avd. Stiftsbiblioteket)

Summary list of works

3 operas (Electra, Alcides inträde i världen, Renaud), comic operas (numerous), orchestral works (4 overtures etc.), vocal music with orchestra (Försonaren på Golgata, Psaltarpsalmer etc.), works for piano and organ, solo songs (around 40), chorales, choral music (30 or so songs for male choir, songs for mixed choir), liturgical music, occasional pieces (for academic ceremonies etc.).

Collected works

Hæffner’s musical output has not been surveyed in its entirety. Despite the admirable endeavours of Leif Jonsson, no exhaustive list of his works has yet been produced. Some of Hæffner’s music, such as that for Zehn lyrische Versuche, seems to have been lost; other music has been recycled with new lyrics for new contexts, as has been particularly the case in Finland. There are also a number of anonymous autographs and printed works that could be his. The list of works below is based on Folke Bohlin’s summary of Hæffner’s works from 1969, Leif Jonsson’s highly detailed Hæffner Documenta from 1995 (which might be published in the future), the online version of the International Inventory of Musical Sources (RISM) from 2014 and personal observation. Most of the manuscripts (‘ms’) and printed sheet music can be found in the Music and Theatre Library of Sweden and Uppsala University Library. There is a little material kept in the National Library of Sweden and in Västerås gymnasie- och stiftsbibliotek (upper-secondary school and diocesan library) and according to Engländer (1956), the autograph for Renaud can be found in Berlin Central Library. Unfortunately, not all of these works have been preserved intact.

The following classifications can, of course, be mooted − many occasional pieces, for example, are church music, but intended for unique occasions. The first headings are derived from the contextual setting of the music, the later ones from its instrumental setting − an inconsistency that has nonetheless been considered functional. The list is by no means definitive.

Stage music

Den svartsjuke − sin egen rival, opera comique, 1784, ms. [Probably identical to the never performed comic opera Sängkammareko (Envallsson).]
(Drottning Christina, 1785 by D.F. Müller, but some parts are possibly composed by Hæffner?).
Electra (Guillard & Ristell), performed at Drottningholm 22 Jul. 1791 (and in 1991) and 10 times at the Royal Opera 10 Dec. 1787−20/6 1791, ms. Rec. on 1993, Musica Sveciae MS CD 427-429, Caprice Records, CAP 22030:1-2.
Äfventyraren eller resan till månans ö (Lannerstierna), comic opera with at least two arias by Hæffner, performed at Svenska komiska teatern (Munkbroteatern) 30 Jan. 1791, ms.
Alcides inträde i världen, 1 act (Edelcrantz), only performed at the Dramatic Theatre’s inauguration 11/11 1793, ms. ‘I skydd av dessa hvalf’, recitative and aria printed in Musikaliskt Tidsfördrif 1793.
Divertissement/comic opera for solo and choir, 1795(?), ms. Preserved vocal pieces: Stina ‘Låt oss till midsommardagen en Majstång resa’ and ‘Bättre jag min lycka vet’.
Epilogue to Kreutzers Lodoiska (Lindegren), performed at the Royal Opera 2 Nov. 1795 on account of Gustav IV Adolf’s first engagement, ms. For orchestra, choir and ballets. ‘Kan mit hjerta mer begära’, aria with choir, and ‘Milda hjerta, känn min låga’, aria, printed in Musikaliskt Tidsfördrif 1796 and 1797. Textbook printed in 1795. From 1814, the last song became famous with the text ‘Hulda Rosa’ (Atterbom), see solo songs.
Coupletter i anledning af Kongl Majts återkomst från Ryssland, ms, vaudevilles, of which ‘Milde Konung! Hör vår röst’, trio with choir is printed in Musikaliskt Tidsfördrif 1796.
‘Prinsessa, Nordens högsta prydnad’, aria with choir from Prologen vid Kronprinsessan Fredricas ankomst till Drottningholm 23/10 1797, printed in Musikaliskt Tidsfördrif 1797. Possibly the same as ‘[14] scenes from a prologue published in 17??’.
Renaud (Lebouf & Sparrschöld), performed at the Royal Opera 29 Jan. 1801 – 16/12 1802, incomplete preserved ms. Engländer 1956 renders the first page of the score of the overture in a manuscript in Berlin’s city library. 8 musical pieces from the opera printed in Musikaliskt Tidsfördrif 1801−1802, ‘Glada lekar, muntra nöjen’, ‘O! huru lifvas ej mitt sinne’.
See also under solo songs.

Occasional music
Vid Jubelfesten 1793 (Adlerbeth), in SMB labelled Musik vid jubileum 1800, Upsala Church music, ms. Aria (Edonis?), trio (Aretea, Edonis Alcid) and march. Probably a revision of the 1793 version.
Funeral music for Carl Ludvig of Baden 1801, ms. The preluding march also arranged in a version for wind ensemble, also includes ‘Må du från ljusets höjd’, ‘Svea nyss med sträkta händer’. ‘Den stjernan som gav hopp åt Norden’ and ‘Du kom, O Prins’ for choir and tenor solo. One aria reused in 1810.
Chorale finale ‘Hjeltemod och dygder’ in Olof Åhlström’s cantata ‘Framträden, älskade’ written for the unveiling of Gustav III’s statue in 1808, ms. Hæffner has orchestrated the cantata.
At the funeral oration of Prince Karl August in November 1810, ms.
At the funeral oration of Duke Axel von Fersen 1811, ms. Solo quartet ‘Mild källans ådra flyter’, choir ‘Men snart orkanens vilda magt’ and duet ‘Då i naturens gång... Se Fersen är ej mer’.
At Karl Johan’s enrolment as chancellor at Uppsala University 1811, ms. Orchestra, soli ‘Milde Prins! Njut Vasars ära’, choir/quartet ‘Värdig i striden’ and ‘Samlas ungdom i sin Vår’.
At the Master’s graduation 1812, (Atterbom), ms. Hæffner’s first promotion music with, among others, the choral song ‘Gud Zebaoth, som gömd af oändlighetens grus’. The preluding march was the base for the 1814 choral song ‘Vikingasäten’, see male choir below.
At academic ceremonies 13–14/2 1815, (Atterbom), ms. ‘Hvad glans i Nordens natt?’, ‘På kölens rygg’, ‘Hvad börjat lopp’, ‘När hjelten åt sin halfö’. The concluding Luther chorale ‘Ho väldig är, förutan Gud’ possibly set for TTBB.
At the Master’s graduation 1815, music lost (?)
Vid jubelfesten 1817 (Zeipel). According to Bohlin et. al. the music is lost, but Jonsson mentions two possible works − UUB vm 99:15 ‘Från evighetens Thron’ (with the note ‘Jubelfesten’) vm 100:7-8 ‘Vinkande svajar vår räddade fana’, ‘I fanans skygd en källa sakta flyter’, ‘Lofsjungom Herran förlossade Bröder’.
At the funeral oration of King Karl XIII, 4 May 1818 (Ödmann), ms. ‘Sänkte moln den himmel hölja’, ‘Så tag då våra låga stränder’.
Vid Karl XIV Johan’s coronation in Uppsala 1818 (Geijer), ms. Choir ‘Konungarnas Konung’ (also separate), recitative, aria and marches.
At the Master’s graduation 1818 (Geijer?), ms. ‘Förutan snillets ljus’, ‘Segren förkunnas från stridens bana’.
At the theology doctoral graduation in Uppsala church 15/10 1818, ms.
At the Master’s graduation 1821 (Zeipel), ms in version of piano vocal score and some parts. ‘Ljusets ljus’, ‘Naturen skendöd’, ‘Kom rena ungdomseld, du vårens friska like!’, ‘Se lifvet är den högsta sången’. Possibly also includes a trio from Alcides inträde i världen. The music partly reused at the Master’s graduation 1830.
At the Master’s graduation 1822, ms. Possibly reused in 1833?
At academic ceremonies on account of Crown Prince Oscars marriage in 1823, ms. Choir, orchestra and soli. ‘Än för vår sällhets mått’, ‘För dig hvarje hjärta brinner’, ‘Och hon som ifrån thronens fot’, Hell ädla par’, ‘Hell Konung’.
At the Master’s graduation 1824 (Nicander), ms. ‘När kärlek sig en krans vill knyta’, ‘En stråle från solens glans’.
At academic ceremonies on account of the delivery by the Princess (hereditary Prince Karl’s birth in 3 May 1826), oration in Uppsala 18 May 1826 (Atterbom?), ms. Choir, orchestra, soli. ‘Svenskar och Normän’, ‘Vår framtids morgonsol’, Gifven är oss Du’. Ceremonial speech given by Atterbom.
At the Master’s graduation 16 June 1827, ms. Also as piano vocal score. ‘Som till den helga graf’, ‘Helig är stunden’.
At academic ceremonies on account of Prince Gustaf’s birth (Duke of Uppland) 1827, ms. Choir, soli and orchestra. ‘Vid Urdas brunn stor skuld’, ‘Så lyder domen. Det herrliga Norden sörjer nu ej. Balder är kommen’, ‘Och Freij hans i ljuf förening’.
At academic ceremonies 1829, ms.
At the oration on account of Prince Oscar’s birth 1829, incomplete ms. Choir and instrument. ‘Sveas genius... Du för Sveas lycka verkar... Helsar Oscar!’
At the funeral ceremony of Princess Sophia Albertina, daughter of King Adolf Fredrik, 8–9/10 1829 (Zeipel), ms. Choir, soli and instrument. ‘Lyssnen, grafvens klockor klämta’ (later reused with the text ‘Sörjen, sörjen Lagerskogen klagar’, at the funeral ceremony 1832 after Claes Adolf Flemming och minnesfest efter Magnus Brahe, text then by Böttiger), ‘Hon var Sverges, hon var vår’, ‘Stormen uppvaknar’, ‘Genom stormen går en röst’, ‘Sitt öga öfver bergets topp’, ‘Så ljuft som i den ljusa sommarquällen’.
At the oration on account of the birth of Princess Eugénie (?) 1830, ms. Choir, soli and instrument.
At the Master’s graduation 16 June 1830 (Böttiger or Zeipel), incomplete ms. ‘Och våren skön’, ‘I nattens ursprung’, ‘Osynliga tärnor i lummiga lindar’, ‘Vad prövningar den unga kraften’. Mased on the Master’s oration from 1821.
At the jubilee celebration November 1830 (Zeipel), only orchestral score preserved (?). Orchestra, choir and soli, ‘Befriarn böjer’, ‘O Gud, som var med våra fäder’, ‘En vild gestalt från djupets rike’.
At the theology doctoral graduation 14 June 1831 (fragments), incomplete ms. ‘Skiljda språk den valda skaran talar’, ‘Ställd till rov åt faran’, ‘Sina blomsteroffer frambar jorden’, Rymdens skald’.
At the oration on account of the birth of Prince August 1831. The music used was from ‘Under Svea banér’ in double choir TTBB, with the text ‘Flydd från blödande jord’ and ‘Främst må du lära’, see Male choir.
At the Master’s graduation 1833, ms, complete part material. Instrument, choir and soli, ‘Hvad glans, hvad festlig syn från Eeos rosenkind’, ‘Delos Gud i lågor stiger ned på Thules hvita fjäll’, ‘Segren är vunnen på silvret i håren’. Hæffner’s last work, he died on 28 May 1833.

Liturgical vocal music with orchestra
Davids Psalm 20 (text ‘af Tingstadius’, i.e. his trans. of the Psalter 1791), ms. Also numbered as ‘No 63’ and ‘Kyrkomusik 29’. ‘Bönhöre Tig then Evige!’ Choral parts in Musikaliskt Tidsfördrif 1807. Music including choral parts in edition by Anders Dillmar 1992/2014.
Davids Psalm 21 ‘för fyra Röster, efter Biskop Tingstadius öfversättning af Psaltaren’ [1791], ms, 1806(?). ‘Öfver Tin magt, o Evige, frögder sig Konungen’. Edition Anders Dillmar 2014.
Psalm 51, Hæffner’s revision of Marcello’s psalter composition for choir, winds and string orchestra 20/10 1807, ms. ‘Utaf godhet och nåd, eviga källa’. Edition by Anders Dillmar 1992/2014.
Oratoriet Försonaren på Golgata (Ödmann). First performed 19 Mar. 1809 at the Gustavianska auditoriet Uppsala for soli, choir and string. ‘Skåda, frälsta verld!, den nåd som beredde ljusets dagar!, ‘Djupt till stoftet sänke sig min blick!’, ‘Himlarne sjunga, o Fader, din ära, vishet och nåd’, ‘Skymd för den verld Han går att försona’, ‘Han går att uppoffra sitt lif för bröder, brottsliga’, ‘Ej solen mera sprider det ljus af Gud hon fick’, ‘Skyarna hotande välfva’, ‘Frälsta verld! vid dessa under öpnar nåden dig sin famn’, ‘Och denna välgörande hand - vid korset fästad!’, ‘Din ondska, fallna slägte!, sin udd mot Jesum hvässt’, ‘Lär mig rätt din kärlek vörda’, ‘Det är fullkomnadt!’, ‘Nådens dom till frid besluten jordens folk förkunnas här’, ‘Himmel och jord sina sånger förena’ samt slutfuga (två olika versioner) ‘Amen! Halleluja! The oratorio is the first Swedish such with instruments. In 1829 Hæffner revised it for larger setting, incomplete ms. After a performance in Gamla Uppsala Church 1992 the work has been edited to its original setting by Anders Dillmar 1992/2014. Manuscript in Uppsala, Stockholm and Västerås.

Hymnbooks and music for mass
3 Prof-psalms, without Hæffner’s name printed in Musikaliskt Tidsfördrif 1799. Belongs to the coeval discussions with Abbé Vogler on how hymns should be written.
Choral arrangements of the congregational parts from Svenska Messan [Swedish Mass] 1799.
Choralbok 1800.
Choralbok 1807–1808. First published in booklets. Much distributed around Sweden and Finland.
Tysk Universal-choralbok, 1812–18, not completed. Reconstructed in Anders Dillmar’s doctoral dissertation 2001.
Svenska Messan [Swedish Mass], 1817.
Svensk Choralbok af Kongl Psalm-Kommitén gillad och antagen 1819, printed 1820.
Svensk Choralbok, second part, 1821. Includes, among others, settings for wind instruments and timpani, as well as preface and registers for part 1 (1820).
Luthers Litania, arranged for two male choirs and organ, ms. And arrangement for two choirs also exist in print in Choralbok part 2, 1821 (no. 35).
Choral-Buch eingrichtet nach dem Gesang-Buch der deutschen Gemeinde in Stockholm von J C F Hæffner, Upsala den 12n 7br [September] 1828, ms.

Solo songs (with clavier or other instruments)
Sång till firande av Hoglands hjelte, ‘Sjungom Carl vars dygder’, 1788, ms.
Hovmästaren (‘En gammal hovmästare är en juvel’), couplet, probably during the Stockholm period, ms.
Allegro för hovsekreteraren Karsten, ‘Hvad / Hur sällt det folk som under fridens skygd’. Solo and instrument/s, Stockholm period, ms. Probably a complimentary song to the King.
Solfège, singing exercises for Mme Annerstedt(?) with piano accompaniment, ms.
‘O du som vårens tekning lär’, ms.
‘Lugn och oskuld hos oss bor’, ms. Choir and orchestra
Romans no 7, Frederica (‘För älskarinnan hvilken pläga att fästas vid en hatad hand’), ms.
‘Catrina i sin fållbänk låg’, parody Anders and Köks-Kajsa (Lenngren), printed in Skaldestycken satte i musik 1793.
‘Redan hann sin purpurslöja’ (Lenngren), printed in Skaldestycken satte i musik 1793
‘Skål för den jord, som först drufvorna födde!’ (Franzén), printed in Skaldestycken satte i musik 1794.
‘Selma i sin vagga låg’ (Franzén), printed in Skaldestycken satte i musik 1794.
‘Milde Konung! Hör vår röst’, couplet (Lenngren), 1796.
Visheten (‘Ack hur svårt är ej att hinna’, Franzén), printed in Skaldestycken satte i musik 1798.
Lydia och Arist. Lyrical monologue (Valerius), concert aria from the Stockholm period, ms.
Tenor solo with orchestra or piano. ‘Sällhet, jag söker dig’, ‘Så skön var denna ömma ljufva Flicka’, ‘Af henne och af dygden ledd’, ‘Midnatten nedgick stum’, ‘Och fåglen teg’, ‘Tunga skyar’, ‘Fåfängt’ I segren!’, ‘Lydia är ej mer’. Also printed in Musikaliskt Tidsfördrif 1798:20-21. [The work has been, apart from Hæffner, also beenattributed to Valerius and Kraus].
‘Nej bättre jag min lycka vet’, printed in Musikaliskt Tidsfördrif 1803. Compare above under Stage music.
Solo for tenor (‘En beklaglig levnad den syndarn för’, Debroen), at the latest in 1804, ms.
Solo for tenor (‘Du som den trogna jorden’, Crælius), at the latest in 1806, ms.
Duet for Mamsell [Inga Elisabeth] Åberg and Andreas Widerberg (‘Låt oss till vårt hjerta sluta’), at the latest 1808, ms.
‘Thormoder kolbruna skald’ (Atterbom), printed in Iduna 1812 without Hæffner’s name.
Necken (‘Djupt i hafvet’, Afzelius), arrangement, printed in Iduna 1812 without Hæffner’s name.
‘Samloms! Bröder’ (Atterbom), printed in Iduna 1813. Compare under Male choir below.
Arrangement of the music to Svenska folk-visor från forntiden, published by Geijer & Afzelius 1814−1818
‘Hulda Rosa’, serenade (Atterbom), printed in Poetisk kalender 1815. Music almost identical to ‘Milda hjerta, känn min låga’ från 1795, see Stage music.
Majsång (‘Se öfver dal och klyfta’, Tegnér), at the latest in 1813, printed in Iduna 1816 and in Schwedische Lieder 1818. For solo with clavier or orchestral accompaniment, but also for male quartet (trio?) a cappella, see Male choir below.
Manhem (‘Det var en tid det bodde uti Norden’, Geijer) 1811, ms. Printed in Iduna 1817 and in Schwedische Lieder 1818.






Herthas barn (‘Fordom grönlockade Hertha’), Uppsala at the latest in 1818, ms. For soprano and tenor with instrument/s, but also with clavier accompaniment. ms.
‘Was gehst du schöne Nachbarin’ (Goethe), ms. Possibly composed in 1818.
Previous song for clavier (without text, but known in Finland as Bröder nu vakna förhoppningens dagar in arrangement for male choir), ms. Possibly 1818.
Schwedische Lieder / Svenska sånger, printed in Leipzig [=Uppsala] 1818. ‘Häfte 1’ ‘De Studerande i Upsala tillägnade’. [About this edition, see Bohlin 2002/2014].
• Lejonriddarne ‘Vikingasäten, åldriga lundar’ (Atterbom). Also an arrangement for male choir, see Male choir and Occasional music.
• Majsång ‘Se öfver dal och klyfta’ (Tegnér), at the latest 1813, printed in Iduna 1816
• Marche för Studerande i Upsala ‘Under Svea banér’ (unknowned text author), music from the opera Renaud 1801. Also one movement for 4-part male choir.
• Die schöne Nacht ‘Nun verlasse ich diese Hütte’ (Goethe)
• Die Spinnerin ‘Als ich still und ruhig spann’ (Goethe)
• Manhem ‘Det var en tid’ (Geijer), printed in Iduna 1817
• Sångens ö, ‘Saht Ihr den Stern’ / ‘Såg du det bloss’ (Atterbom, who has also possibly done the German translation)
12 songs for 1 voice and piano, Uppsala 1819(?), ms. Hæffner’s musical handwriting, but the text is of another hand, the book probably compiled for the Crown Prince or Princess.
• Marche för Studerande i Upsala ‘Under Svea banér’ (unknown text author), musiken from the opera Renaud 1801.
• Majsång ‘Se öfver dal och klyfta’ (Tegnér), at the latest 1813, printed in Iduna 1816
• Manhem ‘Det var en tid’ (Geijer), printed in Iduna 1817
• Rosen
• Thormoder Kolbruna Skald
• Harpan till Laura, ‘Fly till mig’
• Vallmon
• Skridsko-farten
• Utur Romanen Vådelden, ‘Ej Nordens is’
• Flyttfoglarne
• Herthas Barn
• Bergvandrarn
Grafven (‘Så mörk och kall’/’Das Grab ist tief’, Salis-Grafström), printed by Müller in Stockholm, 1820. Composed in memory of Bernhard Beskow.
Song to Oscar and Josephina, defect ms, 1823 or 1825?

Songs for male choir (a cappella)
‘Vi som ett folk af ädle Bröder’, ms. For orchestra, solo [Andreas] Widerberg and male choir.
‘Samloms! Bröder’, ms. 1813. ‘Marche sjungen af de studerande vid deras Militair Execiçe d 30 Maij’.
Majsång (‘Se öfver dal och klyfta’, Tegnér), ms at the latest 1813. Printed in Iduna 1816.
Lejonriddarne (‘Vikingasäten, åldriga lundar’, Atterbom), 1814. See Occasional music and solo songs.
Marche för Studerande i Upsala (‘Under Svea banér’, unknown text author), 1818.
Music from the opera Renaud 1801. 4-part male choir, compare to Solo songs. Later expanded to double choir ‘Flydd från glödande jord’ / ‘Främst må du lära’ (Fahlcrantz).
Arrangement of Carl XII’s march at Narva (‘Viken tidens flyktiga minnen’, Geijer), 30 Nov. 1818. Printed in Poetisk kalender 1818 and separate ‘På Hof-Kapellmästarn Hæffners Förlag’.
‘Hulda Rosa’, serenade (Atterbom), TTBB in handwritten quartet books from the 1820s.
‘Kommer du åter med gudaprakt’, march on Oscarsdagen, 1 Dec. 1819, printed in 1819.
‘Så visst som än den gamla Bälten’ Lofsång på Oscarsdagen, 1/12 1819, printed in 1819.
‘Unga Lejon! Gack Din bana’ (Atterbom), Minne-Sång Oscarsdagen 1 Dec. 1819, printed in 1819 and in Poetisk kalender in 1820.
‘Heliga kärlek till fäderneslandet’. Oscarsdagen 1821.
Luthers Litania, arranged for two male choirs and organ, ms. One setting for two choirs and priest with organ accompaniment also exists in Hæffner’s hymnbook 1821 (nr 35). See Hymnbooks.
Sång vid H K H Kronprinsens afresa från Upsala 16/3 1822, printed in Uppsala 1822, anonymous. Attributed to B G Ekeberg, but also Hæffner.
Swedish folk songs set for four male voices, printed in 1832, new ed. printed in Örebro 1861.
• ‘Och jungfrun hon skulle sig till ottesången gå’
• ‘Hillebrand tjänte i konungens gård’
• ‘Och liten Karin tjänte’
• ‘Och det var riddar Tynne (dubbelkör)
• ‘Det bodde en bonde vid sjöastrand’
• ‘Det sutto två kämpar i Nordanfjäll’
• ‘Och jungfru hon gick till sjöastrand’
• ‘Om lycka och ära vi hörde en sång’ (Fahlcrantz). Melody: ‘Om sommaren sköna’
‘Låt dina portar upp’, printed in Musikaliskt Tidsfördrif 1833

Songs for mixed choir (a cappella)
Arrangement of Swedish folk song (‘Bevara, Gud! Vår Kung!’, Edelcrantz). Melody: God save the King 1805. Hæffner’s name not noted however.
Till H K H KronPrinsen 17/12 1819 (‘Du lägger glädjens Engel!’, Grafström), printed in 1819.

Clavier works
Gluck, Iphigenie en Tauride, ‘Arrangée pour le Clavedin et dediée à La Majesté La
Reine par Chr Fr Hæffner at Stockholm, tryckt av Åhlström 1785. The flyleaf informs that the arranger has tried to reconstruct ‘l'effet de l'Orchestre’ in the last movement.
‘Ädla skuggor’, Hymn from Johann Gottlieb Naumann’s opera Gustaf Vasa, by Hæffner ‘arranged for clavier, 1786.
Kraus, Overture to Dido och Æneas for clavier four hands, printed at Kongl. Priviligierade Nottryckeriet Stockholm 1796.
Chaconne from Hæffner’s opera Renaud, piano vocal score 1801.
Overture to Azémia af D'Alairac, arranged for clavier by Hæffner.
Andantino with [19] variations [over the melody Gubben Noach] by Hæffner, published by Olof Åhlström as ‘Underrättelser jemte Öfnings Exempel ... uti Klavér Spelning’, (1786?), printed in 1803.
Burlesk. Printed in Knut Brodins Svenska bilder i musiken, n.d.
Carl XII:s Marsche vid Narva.
March at the Master’s graduation 1815. Graduation music lost (?)
Revision of Traditions of Swedish Folk Dances, in Musikaliskt Tidsfördrif 1816.
The music (insert) to Svenska folk-visor från forntiden, published by Geijer & Afzelius 1814−1818.

Organ
Stort Preludium till Psalmen Hela werlden fröjdes Herran för Nybegynnare, prelude, 1818. Printed in Preludier 1822.
Preludier till Melodierna [preludes, no. 1−138] uti Svenska Choralboken samt ett tillägg med Marscher (vid Prestvigning, Högtidliga processioner, Begrafningar, Stort preludium samt Utgångsstycke), 1822. The last is published by Anders Ruuth at Noteria 1973.

Orchestra
Overture in D major, 1795, ms
Overture in E-flat major, no. 125, ms. String and wind orchestra with percussion
Overture in E-flat major, no. 129, dated 16 Feb. 1822, ms. String and wind orchestra with percussion.
Overture for winds and strings, ms
Music to ballets by Mr Du Puy (1795). Here rinted in a textbook (‘Orden af Hf C Lindegren. Musiken af Hr Hæffner’)
Ballet [musis] for Mrs [Hedvig Elisabeth] Casagli, ms. 1799-1805. Possibly included in the opera Renaud 1801.
Sinfonia af Capellmäst Hæffner, ms. 1. Allegro con brio – 2. Scherzando ‘Contradance af Konungen arrangerad af HofKapellmäst Hæffner’. From Gustav III’s era.
Symphonies, collected volume.
Gustaf III’s funeral march 1792, printed in Musikaliskt Tidsfördrif 1802. Possibly by Åhlström however, originally possibly for large orchestra.
Aus der Oper die Hochzeit des Figaro von Mozart. Music for wind ensemble, ms
Suite for winds, ms.
Allegretto for winds, ms, before 1800.
Prelude and fugue no. 1 and fugue no. 5 from Wohltemperiertes Clavier by J S Bach arranged for orchestra by Hæffner, ms.
Variations over the folk song ‘Bevara Gud vår Kung’ [=God save the King], ms.
Bolero, ms.
2 Polonaises for orchestra, ms
Pas de deux, ballet music, ms.
‘Pas seul de Mr Beautin’, ‘Coda to Mr Beautin’s solo in 3rd Act’. Ballet music, ms.
Partie (only winds), ms. Allegro-Minuet-Allegro
Turkish march (winds with various percussion and triangle), ms
Hymns, ms. Several arrangements of hymns for wind instruments and timpani also printed in Choralboken 1821 (part 2), compare to Hymnbooks.


Works by Johann Christian Friedrich Hæffner [Haeffner]

This is not a complete list of works. The following works are those that have been inventoried so far.

Number of works: 14